Economic inequality is increasing and it puts a threat to the social and moral cohesion of European society. Pope Francis has repeated his concern about growing economic inequality on many occasions. In a globalised economy, better international and European cooperation can make taxation fairer and can contribute to reducing economic inequality. Therefore, Justice and Peace Europe has dedicated its annual concerted action in 2016 to fairer taxation. This briefing gives an overview of the current state of play at the EU and global level and should allow national commissions to pursue their activities.